Sunday, May 24, 2020
Thomas Mark Criminal Justice 105 Police Misconduct What is police misconduct? It can be defined as any action performed by a law enforcement officer that is unethical by established employment guidelines, unconstitutional, or a crime with in itself. When people hear the term Ã¢â¬Å"police misconductÃ¢â¬ they automatically think of a police officer using unnecessary force against a civilian. While that is a form of police misconduct it is not only form. Throughout this paper I will bring light to the many types of police misconduct that can happen in the law enforcement industry. While being a police officer, you have guidelines and rules that you need to follow just as if you worked as a chef or even a sales associate you have rulesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This can happen in the form of beating a person while making the arrest or using any unnecessary force against the person. Sometimes police beatings can be racially based or can happen due to an argument between the officer and the person. The use of excessive force in the law enforcement industry is not tolerated in any form. If a police officer is found guilty in using unnecessary force on a person they will be terminated from their job. Using unnecessary force is one of the more know types of police misconduct being that when excessive force is used on a person there is normally charges pressed on the officer and the case is brought into court and therefore into the media. Another type of police misconduct is sexual harassment. This would be when a officer sexually harasses a male or female individual. Most sexual harassment case are from a male officer to a female victim. Some police officers like to take advantage of their authority and will go as far to rape individuals just because they feel that the fact that they are a police officer, they will be able to get away with it. A report done in 2010 showed that 6,613 law enforcement officers throughout the United States were involved with police misconduct. 9.3% was sexual harassment charges of police misconduct. Officer-involved sexual misconduct describes an entire subset of police misconduct that includes non criminal complaints such as consensual sexual activity that occurs while an officer is on-duty,Show MoreRelated Police Corruption and Misconduct Essay1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Police corruption and misconduct come apparent in many different forms. A basic definition for police corrupti on is, when an officer gets involved in offenses where the officer uses his or her position, by act or omission, to obtain improper financial benefit. The main reason for such corruption is typically for personal gain, such as bribery. Police abuse of authority occurs in three different general areas such as physical abuse, psychological abuse, and legal abuse. Physical abuse is suchRead More Police Misconduct and Corruption Essay2489 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesWithin our police system in America, there are gaps and loopholes that give leeway to police officials who either abuse the authority given to them or do not represent the ethical standards that they are expected to live up to by society. Because of the nature of police work, there is a potential for deterioration of these ethical and moral standards through deviance, misconduct, corruption, and favoritism. Although these standards are set in place, many police officers are not held accountable forRead MorePolice Brutality Essay9 89 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPolice Brutality against African American people has begun to take a toll on our communities. African American communities cannot even trust the police, because of the way they are being treated unfairly by a police officers of them distract or their state. Which is why the police are being coming more advanced in technology, but still fail to use their powers as an officer correctly. This cause the police officers are using misconduct against African American people when confronted by them. ThisRead MoreRace, Drugs And Policing1483 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin drug delivery arrests and argues that race shapes perceptions of whom and what constitutes SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s drug problem, and how the police response to that problem. The findings suggest that the blacks are significantly more in numbers among SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s drug delivery arrestees compared to whites. The primary cause behind this racial disparity is due to the fact that police focus mainly on crack dea lers who are predominantly blacks more than any other serious drug dealers. The evidence states that evenRead MoreThe Unwritten Code1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Unwritten Code The Police Ã¢â¬Å"Code of SilenceÃ¢â¬ is an unspoken rule among many police agencies in the country. It is a code of Ã¢â¬Å"honorÃ¢â¬ in the police brotherhood where giving information about another police officers wrongdoings is considered an act of betrayal. Other terms for the code include: Ã¢â¬Å"The Thin Blue Line,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Wall of Silence.Ã¢â¬ Police academies across the nation are close-knit communities of law enforcement. From the first day on the job to the last, every officer is supposed to countRead MorePolice Brutality And Its Effects1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPolice are supposed to enforce the law amongst people around the world, but unfortunately, some of the ways they enforce are unjust and unruly. Over the past decade, they have acted out in ways that have caused us to question whether or not they are fit for the job or if something should be changed. Police brutality is the malicious use of excessive force, often in the form of physical actions, but also common in verbal abuse and psychological intimidation by a police officer. The word Ã¢â¬Å"BrutalityÃ¢â¬ Read MoreEnglish 1A Essay 3 1 3 1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages13 November 2014 The Horrors of Police Brutality Imagine being in the Bart train, going to a party with some of your friends, but while in route, you are shot by the Bart police for a crime you did not commit. This is the story of a young man named Oscar Grant. On New Years Eve of 2009, he was fatally shot. . Police brutality is the use of excessive force, physically or verbally, by a police officer. In one year, how many incidents of police brutality or misconduct do you think have occurred? InRead MoreArgumentative Essay : Police Brutality1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesArgumentative Essay and Debate Although I should know by now, I cannot help but think that there has been an overwhelming amount of police brutality in recent years. Police brutality can be defined as, when a police officer uses more force than necessary. This issue has spread throughout the United States of America, and is putting the lives of our citizens in great danger. Police brutality is not only physical, but it can also be verbal attacks; and, in most cases, it is caused by false arrest andRead MorePolice Corruption And The Ethical Dilemmas That Police Face1886 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIntroduction This essay aims to provide the reader with an in depth analysis as to what is police corruption, the ethical dilemmas that police face and what is the nature and causes of police corruption from both a national and international perspective. This essay will also provide the reader with an in-depth analysis as to what is police accountability and why it is needed and upon conclusion, this essay will also provide the reader with strategies for managing police integrity. What Causes Police MisconductRead MoreThe Streetcar Killing Of Sammy Yatim1425 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Police institutions depend on being considered legitimate by the public in order to continue working for the public. However, with recent cases such as the streetcar killing of Sammy Yatim, the legitimacy of police has begun to be questioned. For the purpose of this essay, I will focus on how this case has brought forth conversations regarding police cultureÃ¢â¬âincluding use of force and the visibility of police in the age of technologyÃ¢â¬âand ultimately how this has shaped public perception
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Marx and the Communist Movement The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels, has become one of the worlds most influential and significant pieces of political propaganda ever written. It contains the viewpoints and ideology of the world-view that Marx and Engels had come to know from their political involvement from the previous years. Published in 1848, in a time of European revolution, the Manifesto is an incisive summary of the Marxist vision and outlines the foundation of the Marxist movement. According to Marx, four stages of human development exist. In the beginning of social development there is slavery where political and social freedoms are non-existent. The second stage of development, knownÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Thus, the working class or proletarians, grow in number and political awareness, and according to the Manifesto, generate inevitable revolution. Though Marx does not specifically describe the steps of transformation from one stage to another, he does give strong allusion and assumption to a political and social revolution. Marx, through political involvement, witnessed the third social stage of development known as capitalism. In this Marx came to see the world system as a whole and recognized the many evils of capitalism. Marx saw capitalism as the worst stage of human and social development, for its foundation lay in the oppression of the working class. These social evils were numerous; the most important were the class antagonisms set upon the masses or proletariats. Therefore the bourgeois remained the only class that was financially and physically well off. The capitalist society reduced the family to a Ã ¬mere money relation,Ã ® and thus increased urban population causing a momentary stalemate due to the overabundance in subsistence, industry, and commerce. The capitalist society also substituted brutal exploitation for morals and money. This caused the capitalist society to grow too large for its own good, forcing the bourgeois to either destroy what they have created and start over, or leave and form a new settlement for markets; both of which left theShow MoreRelatedDifferent Ideologies in Marx and Engels Communist Manifesto1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Communist Manifesto Communism movements were revolutionary or proletarian movements that were inspired by the ideas of Marxism concerning the social inequality that was a major concern in the 19th century. These revolutions aimed at replacing the then dominant capitalist era with socialism. Communism was driven by the ideas of Marx and suggested that the workers of the world were to be united and free themselves from the capitalist oppression, and this was to create a world run by the workingRead More Karl Marx And The Communist Manifesto Essay example901 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKarl Marx And The Communist Manifesto Because the first printing of the Communist Manifesto was limited and the circulation restricted, the Manifesto did not have much impact on society after it was written in 1848. This meant that there were not many people who had access to the document. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1871, when the Paris Commune occurred, that the Communist Manifesto began to have a huge impact on the working class all over the world.[i] The Paris Commune, whichRead MoreThe Communist Manifesto Essay747 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The Communist Manifesto opens with the famous words quot;The history of all hitherto societies has been the history of class struggles.Ã¢â¬ In section 1, quot;Bourgeois and Proletarians,quot; Marx delineates his vision of history, focusing on the development and eventual destruction of the bourgeoisie, the middle class. Before the bourgeoisie rose to prominence, society was organized according to a feudal order run by aristocratic landowners and corporate guilds. With the discovery of America andRead MoreA Summary Of The Communist Manifesto Marx1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the Communist Manifesto Marx, explained the historical class struggles that each society had encountered since the beginning of time. Class resemblances are usually, the oppressor and the oppressed on opposite sides and classes with various orders of complicated arrangements (p.15). MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s believed that h is society has not left the class antagonism from earlier times such as the Ancient RomanÃ¢â¬â¢s, however, enforced new classes with new conditions and struggles for the oppressed individuals, in placeRead More A Summary of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx Essays1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Summary of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx Karl Marx was an idealist. He observed the cruelties and injustices that the poor working class endured during the period of industrial revolution, and was inspired to write of a society in which no oppression existed for any class of people. Marx believed in a revolution that would end socialism and capitalism, and focus on communist principles. The Manifesto of the Communist Party, written by Karl Marx and edited by Frederick Engels, describesRead More The Death of Communism828 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Death of Communism The United States longest and bloodiest war was the Vietnam War, which was fought from 1959 until 1975.(Communist Manifesto 1) In this war 57,685 Americans were killed, and their were over 2 million Vietnamese deaths.(Communist Manifesto 3) One of the main causes of the war was a commonly held American belief called the Domino Theory. This theory stated that if the U.S. allowed one country to fall to communism, those around it would fall, and then those around it, eventuallyRead MoreMarx And Engels : The Communist Manifesto896 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Communist Manifesto had little influence when it was first published, in 1848. Marx and Engels start out the document with the phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"[a] specter is haunting Europe Ã¢â¬â the specter of communismÃ¢â¬ (Marx and Engels, 14). Marx and Engels are referring to the fear of communism that was spreading in Europe. The fear towards communism, first surfaced by groups that were attempting to flaunt enormous power, saw the risk of t heir interests being affected; therefore, they promoted a generalized panic thatRead MoreKarl Marx And Friedrich Engels974 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdocument has had such far reaching effect as Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s, Communist Manifesto. The Communist Manifesto, hereafter referred to as the CM, was published in London, 1848 and served as the culmination of the collaboration between Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The CM was to serve as the basis for the communist platform, a political system which, in MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s and EngelÃ¢â¬â¢s view, served as the final destination in the natural progression of society. Marx attributed this progression to the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"class struggleÃ¢â¬ Read MoreThe Influence of the Communist Manifesto on the Development of Industrial Capitalism1249 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Communist Manifesto left a tremendous impact on a society that was rapidly becoming industrialized, and its effects can even be seen on the dominating economic system of the twenty-first century. In the later nineteenth century, however, industrial capitalism was on the brink of ruin. Ã¢â¬Å"On many occasions during the past century, Marxists have thought that capitalism was down for the count . . . Yet it has always come back with renewed strength.Ã¢â¬ Industrial capitalism succeeded in the faceRead More Comparing Reactions to Industrialism in Frankenstein and The Communist Manifesto1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIndustrialism in Frankenstein and The Communist Manifesto Ã Ã Ã The radical changes of the nineteenth century were unlike any the world had seen before. A sense of these changes were felt by all in many aspects; not just politically, but in social and cultural means as well. When Mary Shelleys Frankenstein was published in 1831, it was clear that many general elements of the romantic era were well reflected. Similarly, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels The Communist Manifesto appeared in 1848, a
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(1959) " factor To see the pathological abnormalcies 2 Immediate 24x30cm movie and instantly upon after injection of contrast media to see the film nephrogram opasiti parekima system to measure nephritic and kidney after injection of contrast media 50 ml injection of contrast media, taken instantly after the injection is made To demo nephrogram stage of nephritic parenchyma showed 3 5 proceedingss 35x30cm KUB radiogram after 5 proceedingss of injection of contrast media to measure the secernment of contrast media in both nephritic To see the symmetricalness in the elimination of both kidneys Shows the system pelvic girdle The flow of contrast agent by the kidneys than A farther injection of contrast media may be less if opaksifikasi kidney 4 10 proceedingss with the force per unit area 24x30cm radiographic renal \( nephrogram \) after force per unit area for 10 proceedingss performed 15 proceedingss after injection system to show the pelvis-kalikseal Shows the pelvic girdle with contrast agent system Restrict the contrast medium into the ureter down 5 Release A Overall 35x43cm radiogram \( KUB \) after force per unit area is removed to show the urinary piece of land To see the flow of contrast medium make fulling the full ureter 6 Post micturation 35x43cm KUB radiogram is removed after the piss from the vesica \( after micturition \) To see the staying balance of contrast media in the urinary piece of land To see the ability of the ureter and vesica voidance Show any abnormalcy such as vesica tumour, divertikulum Patient attention after the process Ensure that patients in stablei\?\? status i\?\? Patient altering the original For the patient, back to the twenty-four hours carei\?\? unit For the patient, back to the wardi\?\? Discussions: Why might necessitate endovenous urography \( IVU \) \? There are many fortunes which require IVU scrutiny, but the most common is when you are suspected of holding rocks in your micturition system\." In the skiagraphy unit, contrast media ( centimeter ) is one of the agents who helped to better the truth of x-ray image of some x-ray scrutiny processs. In add-on. CM is a substance that is radio-opaque. We will write a custom essay sample on Contrast Media Procedures For Radiography Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now This cause the contrast media was white on x-ray images. Contrast primary usage is to make the consequence of media images appropriate to the construction or the fluid in the organ basdan. Contrast media major intent of reexamining any pathology of the variety meats involved. Contrast media can be divided into two classs: positive and negative contrast media. In general, a positive contrast media to heighten the soaking up of X ray and displayed as white and grey ( rare ) . Less negative while x-ray soaking up and produces images that are dark and sometimes grey. The usage of contrast media are a few ways. Among them are, to present contrast media into the organic structure by injection through the venas, arterias and lympatic. Cantrast media can besides come in through the oral cavity and from the rectum. Examples of such compounds iodinated contrast positive and negative contrast as gas ( air ) or C dioxide. Among the processs affecting contrast media is IVU scrutiny, upper gastrointestinal system ( GIT ) , lower GI system, gall bladder and bilious canals and others. ivuaÃâ Ã ¦ . Intravenous urography ( I.V.U ) Introduction Urografi endovenous or better known as IVU mean radiographic scrutiny of the urinary system by utilizing contrast media to measure the map of the system. The intent of this review was to detect and measure the anatomical constructions that make up the urinary system seprti kidney, ureter, vesica and urethra, and Fungis such systems. In add-on, it besides seeks to measure the rate of elimination and soaking up of the urinary system itself. The size, form and place of soft tissue around the kidney will be seen on this scrutiny. Not merely that, but no pathology or disease, and breaks in the system awared radiographs taken. IVU endovenous urography which means radiographic scrutiny of the urinary system with a water-soluble contrast media to measure the map of the urinary system. This review is to show anatomy and measure the map of constructions that make up the system, such as kidney, ureter, urinary vesica and urethra. This scrutiny aims to measure the rate of elimination and soaking up of these constructions. In add-on, the size and place of soft tissue around the kidney will be shown. This cheque can besides place any pathology or upset of the system to the system through a series of radiogram taken. A As is good known, the usage of contrast media scrutiny of a solution incorporating iodine compounds. The solution was injected through a vena in the fossa antekubital antekubital the cubitus articulation. Contrast can be seen in both kidneys during the filtration procedure and can demo the ability to map. This scrutiny is merely 50-70 milliliter dijalanakan after injection. contrast media into the vena. Then a everyday X ray images are taken. This is normally called the IVU or IVP. Research is suggested for patients with jobs related to the urinary system. These trials show the kidney, womb and vesica. IVU is the appropriate trial for the probe of blood in the piss ( haematuria ) , skit in the genital and kidney rocks. Inventories are required depending on the state of affairs. If proving is required, readying is non required. However, if it is in conformity with the clip prescribed by the physician, patients are required to fast nightlong to clean the bowels. An agent ( drug ) to empty the intestine, and will be given on an assignment. If the patient has a history of asthma, allergic to iodine or a history of reactions to contrast media beriodin, medical specialty or other allergic reactions, or interpreter radiologist X ray should be informed. Indication i Growth in the venters or pelvic girdle i concretion in the kidney or ureter Renali Trauma Urinaryi shed blooding Renali Failure i Infection in the urinary system Contraindication i hypersensitivity in I Anuriai ( no piss elimination ) Multiplei myeloma Diabetesi mellitus Renali Disease congestivei bosom failure anmia reaping hook cell ( sickle cell anaemia ) i Pheochomocytoma ( renali tumours ) Inventories patients Take a laxative the dark before the scrutiny ofi two Eat a lowi berfiber i fasting 8 hours before periksaan i Information on the processs The contrast will be given merely after the patienti signed a consent signifier Drink plentifulness of H2O for bodyi kehidratan Patients should urinate before thei scrutiny instances instantly, bowel readying is noti required Equipment Kidney dishi Spiriti Velco tourniqueti i Sterile baseball mitt microporei ( plaster ) Contrast media types omnipaque: 180:50i milliliter Procedure At the clip of proving, the patient will lie on the table X ray. An X ray will be taken before the contrast medium injected into a vena. The radiotherapist will put a little acerate leaf on the arm venas. When the contrast medium injected into the vena, a individual may experience hot. That feeling will vanish shortly after the injection. X raies are taken and later, a force per unit area ring will be placed on the venters to demo a better nephritic systems. This will do the patient feels uncomfortable tetepi will non impact the patient Ã¢â¬Ës external respiration. Radiographs ( x-ray ) will be taken. When the set released emphasized, patients need to empty the urinary vesica, and one more X raies are taken. Not all patients with caput memrlukan accent to the venters, depending on the shot obtained for the urinary system of a individual. Projection There are six projections to be taken: 1. Film prelim 2. Film immediate 3. 5 minute movie 4. 10 infinitesimal film ( compressed ) 5. Film release 6. Film post-mict Charge clip series projection objective 1 Preliminary KUB 35x43cm During the first patient to patient to see the intestine readying To place the place of the renal To find the exposure factor To see the pathological abnormalcies 2 Immediate 24x30cm movie and instantly upon after injection of contrast media to see the film nephrogram opasiti parekima system to measure nephritic and kidney after injection of contrast media 50 ml injection of contrast media, taken instantly after the injection is made To demo nephrogram stage of nephritic parenchyma showed 3 5 proceedingss 35x30cm KUB radiogram after 5 proceedingss of injection of contrast media to measure the secernment of contrast media in both nephritic To see the symmetricalness in the elimination of both kidneys Shows the system pelvic girdle The flow of contrast agent by the kidneys than A farther injection of contrast media may be less if opaksifikasi kidney 4 10 proceedingss with the force per unit area 24x30cm radiographic renal ( nephrogram ) after force per unit area for 10 proceedingss performed 15 proceedingss after injection system to show the pelvis-kalikseal Shows the pelvic girdle with contrast agent system Restrict the contrast medium into the ureter down 5 Release A Overall 35x43cm radiogram ( KUB ) after force per unit area is removed to show the urinary piece of land To see the flow of contrast medium make fulling the full ureter 6 Post micturation 35x43cm KUB radiogram is removed after the piss from the vesica ( after micturition ) To see the staying balance of contrast media in the urinary piece of land To see the ability of the ureter and vesica voidance Show any abnormalcy such as vesica tumour, divertikulum Patient attention after the process Ensure that patients in stablei status i Patient altering the original For the patient, back to the twenty-four hours carei unit For the patient, back to the wardi Discussions: Why might necessitate endovenous urography ( IVU ) ? There are many fortunes which require IVU scrutiny, but the most common is when you are suspected of holding rocks in your micturition system. Doctor wants to cognize how to make right out of the kidney to the vesica and how rocks affect the system itumembawa micturition. This trial can be used together with nephritic ultrasound and frailty versa. IVU besides used in the hunt for urinary obstructor or blood in the piss. What particular readying is necessary? Giving consequence to fast If the process done in the afternoon, the patient can eat a light breakfast. It is best if there anything to eat or imbibe 6 hours before the process. Water is allowed for those with diabetes, patients with myeloma, gijal failures and other unwanted wear conditions. Regulation of drug pickings Can non be of any ordinance ( other than those listed below ) in add-on you have asthma or allergic reactions are known. If this is the instance, your review will be reviewed, because you can acquire a reaction to the contrast media used. If your physician feels that the benefits exceed the hazard of the process, you will be given medicine pill Pediapred ( a steroid ) before the review Ã¢â¬â every bit much as 40mg 12 hours before and after, 40mg 2 hours before the process. Sometimes, if the scrutiny should be done instantly and you may non hold been prepared and have allergic reactions, you will be injected with 100 milligrams cortisol ( a steroid ) before scrutiny. A Inventory bowel Diet without veggies and the remainder of the twenty-four hours before the scrutiny. Drink H2O freely during this before fasting once more. You will be given a laxative such as 2 tablets or 10 tablets eucarbon dulcolex at 6 autopsy before the showing. Bowel readying demands vary between different radiology sections, and you should be in relation to certain staff at the topographic point where you will hold your cheque. What really happens during an IVU? You need to alter apparels and have on a infirmary gown for this scrutiny and are asked to resign the piss your vesica. You will lie on a particular tabular array and abdominal radiogram will be performed at specific intervals. Contrast is given ( with a needle through a vena in your arm ) after the radiogram. First in the early phases, the compaction will be performed ( for a short clip merely ) at the underside of the organic structure by utilizing a shock absorber or a place belt or even the tabular array itself will travel down ( the caput ) . In the normal flow of piss from the kidney to the vesica, Procedure takes 30 proceedingss to finish. You are asked to urinate before the last movie taken. However, depending on you, more films and positions will be taken. Inspection will be arranged harmonizing to your sisitem micturition and may be modified and tmbahan medicine should be taken ( eg a diuretic ) in order to look into the state of affairs farther. This may take several hours to finish. At the terminal of the review, Radiologist to state why your physician foremost to propose that you run the IVU. Is it possible troubles originate? The lone trouble arises from the contrast media. These troubles are minor, such as itchiness, weariness and trouble external respiration, bead in blood force per unit area ( normally temporarily ) district attorney seldom dangerous ( anaphylaxis ) . A Rare feeling of hurting and uncomfortableness occurs when the abdominal compaction to be done, but this compaction is normally stopped when you told the translator to manage the X ray of your scrutiny. There are particular instructions after the IVU? There are no particular instructions after IVU. You can eat and imbibe but make non see your physician because he may hold the scrutiny or other processs after the IVU scrutiny. Barium clyster Introduction This is an scrutiny utilizing X raies to analyze the colon with Ba sulphate as contrast media. Colon is portion of the bowel between the little bowel and rectum. These trials evaluate the colon or big bowel. Apart from the nightlong fast, patients are required to provide the bowels. Bowel readying is normally carried out by utilizing julapp, which may be present in the signifier of pills, pulverizations or solutions. The trial besides does non take more than an hr. A tubing is so inserted through the rectum, and Ba. Radiologist may be given an injection in the blood vass to loosen up the bowels. Patients with unnatural bosom round, micturition due to prostate jobs that are non healthy or are required to advise the experts Rradiologi gaukoma that alternate medical specialty can be used. Radiologist will steer patients melelui some description of the different places. Done through two methods: I. Single contrast to kids II. Double contrast ( air and Ba ) to see the colon Indication I. Ca colon II. Obstruction ( barricading ) I. Pathology of colorectal Contra indicants I. Incomplete stock list venters II. Pregnant III. Severe hurting in venters IV. Ulcerative inflammatory bowel disease ( terrible redness of the colon ) V. Toxic megacolon Peersediaan venters 1. Give laxative 4 seeds two yearss before the scrutiny ( makn 2 seed after dinner ) 2. Eat easy to digest ( MAGGI and staff of life ) . Meats and veggies ( or fiber nutrients ) should non be consumed 24 hours before the scrutiny 3. Drink plentifulness of H2O 4. Fast 5-6 hours prior to review 5. No smoke Contrast media Solution: 4 cups 1 cup gum acacia medebar 1400 H2O Fluroskopi the ability of 10 frames / sec Fluroskopi tabular array with 90/20 jousts Equipment bags of Ba Injection equipment direction Equipment cannula rectum Inspection processs 1. Prelim radiographs taken with the patient supine on the scrutiny tabular array 2. Equipment is provided by linking the catheter tip in the Ba and pump supplies 3. Catheter inserted in the rectum with the patient Ã¢â¬Ës status on the left sides 4. Then Ba released to the fleksus splenik under conditions fluroskopi 5. Patients are asked prone and so turn to the left and right so that the Ba can be embedded in the big bowel 6. Excess Ba removed by raising the tabular array to place or by puting a bag erek Ba Ba bag on the floor 7. The air will be pumped into the colon to attach to the full colon Ba and to demo Ã¢â¬Å" kaustra Ã¢â¬ colon. This is called a dual contrast consequence. 8. After the process is performed, radiographs should be made of 4 projections ; I. Prone Ã¢â¬â to show the full big bowel II. Dekubitus sidelong right and left sidelong dekubitus Ã¢â¬â to show the full big bowel III. Prone to the tubing confined corner of 45 grades to the bottom 5cm of the PSIS to see the sigmoid colon Discussions: When is a individual will necessitate a Ba clyster? Since there is a colonoscopy ( endoscopic colon ) , Ba clyster is diminishing. However, this process memepunyai usage when there are alterations in the normal bowel, the presence of blood in the stool, abdominal hurting and anus are non uncommon, terrible irregularity every bit good as support for other types of reviews. Sometimes, when the colonoscopy process to measure the colon is non good for some ground ( the form of the colon that was revolving spiral ) Ba clyster is performed. There is besides a clear difference in cost, the Ba clyster is less expensive. However, colonoscopy has the advantage of transporting out a biopsy ( tissue trying ) ssebarang distinctive features or abnormalcies seen. Sometimes if the colon is clearly a narrow or malignant neoplastic disease of the colon, Ba clyster scrutiny may demo the full colon and the presence of more than one malignant neoplastic disease better. The range will be a job through the narrow portion of the bowel, while Ba sulphate liquid to flux through the narrowest portion. A elaborate scrutiny of the Ba clyster may uncover narrowing of the big bowel, lesions and scratchs such as polyps or tumours. How to fix for the Ba clyster? Inventories gut to make 2 yearss or 48 hours before the process. Eat nutrients low in fibre: Do non eat meat, veggies, fruits and dairy merchandises. Avoid high-fiber nutrients. You can eat white staff of life, noodles ( like Mamee, MAGGI ) of fish and amylum on the first twenty-four hours of readying. On the 2nd twenty-four hours, merely clear liquids such as glucose, Ribena, livita and field H2O, the Chinese, coconut H2O, clear soup ( beef or poulet soup that has been filtered ) should be eaten. 2 yearss, you should imbibe plentifulness of fluids, including apparent H2O as much H2O in the organic structure will be lost when the drugs began to efficaciously gut. On the twenty-four hours before the process, you will be given medicine ( laxatives or clyster ) to assist your bowels. Make non be afraid if you have diarrhea, because the intent of all this readying. Drugs are taken in pill signifier or liquid, such as Oral Fleet. Each will hold a radiology section in readying for Ba clyster and certain medicines may be of different types, although it has the same action in the intestine Ã¢â¬â which is to Ã¢â¬Å" cleanse Ã¢â¬ your colon. Large bowel ( colon ) is clean is of import so that the Ba clyster to look at your colon mucous membrane clearly. If your assignment is at 9 am, you will be asked to fast ( non eat and imbibe ) after 12 autopsy, the twenty-four hours prior to the process. If your oral cavity is dry, you can suck ketula ice. If your assignment is non in the forenoon, you have to fast for 6 hours before the process. Barium Enema Introduction A Ba clyster is a diagnostic trial. During the test, the physician puts a contrast stuff called Ba into the rectum. Adequate Ba is given to make full the colon ( big bowel ) . A apparent abdominal X ray was taken. By make fulling the pit of the bowel, the physician can see the contours of the colon Ã¢â¬Ës liner. Polyps, divertikula ( outpocketings ) , abscess, fistulous withers ( hole ) , kriptus ( pit of certain types ) , and inflammatory alterations can be detected. Mass ( eg tumour ) in peculiar is interesting because the trial is frequently used to test for colon malignant neoplastic disease. A A A A A * In peculiar, barium clyster is used to except bowel disease such as colorectal malignant neoplastic diseases. Over the old ages, Ba clyster was used to measure a assortment of other conditions such as these: A A A A A A A A A A A o Aappendikitis A A A A A A A A A A A o celiac psilosis A A A A A A A A A A A o colorectal adenomas ( growings are non unsafe ) A A A A A A A A A A A o colon divertikula ( pocket or pockets in the bowels ) A A A A A A A A A A A o colon polyps A A A A A A A A A A A o Crohn Ã¢â¬Ës disease A A A A A A A A A A A o diarrhea A A A A A A A A A A A o colon diverticulitis A A A A A A A A A A A o chronic enteric pseudo-obstruction A A A A A A A A A A A o Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage A A A A A A A A A A A o ulcerative inflammatory bowel disease * Although Ba clyster was originally intended as a manner to name the disease, its function has changed. Doctors use the trial as a showing tool for certain people who are at hazard for colorectal malignant neoplastic diseases. A A A A A * In add-on, the Ba clyster is used in some instances to handle a status. The force per unit area exerted when the Ba into the big bowel frequently consequences in work outing a intususepsi ( a telescope in which the effects of the big bowel creases in on itself ) -a status seen in babies. A A A A A * A last trial, the double-contrast Ba clyster, was developed in order to see the mucose membranes in the intestine better. This is achieved by utilizing a roentgenoscope ( an engine to see the internal construction ) and by pull stringsing the place of the individual and the sum of Ba and air are introduced. Hazard During Ba enema process, contrast stuff can punch the colon and spilled into the abdominal pit. Lining of the abdominal pit may go septic ( this status is called chemical peritoneal inflammation ) . Colon may be narrow and clogged. Because of this possible job, certain people may non be good campaigners for this process. Bowel before the process is completed. Anyone holding Ba clyster should be monitored for intestine readying processs. Perforation degrees between different types of clyster are likely due to perforation that occurred prior to the clyster, and the force per unit area exerted on the big bowel, non from the contrast stuff used. Get downing Ba clyster A A A A A * To acquire the exact contours of x-ray images of the colon, must be clean of dungs. This is achieved by cleansing clyster. A A A A A A A A A A A O In add-on, laxatives may be given orally to cleanse the colon of waste stuff could interfere with the processs and trial reading. A A A A A A A A A A A o Normally, you will non be allowed to take nutrient or liquids after midnight the dark before your process. You may be given endovenous fluids incorporating dextroglucose ( sugar ) merely before the trial. The process Sulawesi Barium clyster is performed at the outpatient x-ray centre or big infirmary. You normally go place the same twenty-four hours. A A A A A * When you arrive, the staff will look into the last clip you had no nutrient or liquids. They will besides guarantee that your colon has been adequately prepared ( by cleansing clyster or laxatives, or both ) . A A A A A * You will stay awake during Ba clyster processs. Contrast stuff ( Ba ) is inserted into the rectum through a fictile tubing. Besides the uncomfortableness, you may experience the force per unit area of the fluid that is being provided. If non, the hurting should be minimum. A A A A A * Some X ray is taken. The continuance of the download process depends on the velocity of Ba are needed to make full the field of involvement, the figure of exposures needed to decently measure the big bowel, and the add-on of Ba or exposures are required. After Procedure Most people have a short recovery clip and return place after the process. A A A A A * These images are read by a qualified radiotherapist who presented the findings to your physician may take to see exposures every bit good. Doctors normally call you within a hebdomad with the consequences. A A A A A * If there are unnatural consequences, such as contour abnormalities in the intestine suggest an unnatural mass, your physician will discourse the extra diagnostic and direction programs, which may include biopsy or surgery. Following Measure After you leave the infirmary or surgical centre, you expect after a intestine motion incorporating contrast stuff. You must pay attending to abdominal hurting, spasms, or purging. Name your physician or seek medical attending at the nearest wellness installation if you have terrible symptoms. Barium repast Barium is a calcareous liquid that is used by radiotherapists to depict parts of the digestive piece of land on X ray. In this manner, the digestive piece of land is much more clearly seen in the radiogram and easier to name jobs tersebut.pesakit patients will be given to imbibe Ba, which will demo the gorge ( nutrient tubing journey to the tummy ) the tummy and little bowel deodenum or rectal clyster may be given to demo big bowel. How long is the review done? Typically requires between 10-15 proceedingss. Preparation You may be given a drug pills to eat. Time be get downing the pills it would take the gas in the tummy. It is of import to seek because you would hold gas in the tummy during the scrutiny. After the patient swallows Ba, the patient will be asked to turn over to different places on the tabular array for x-ray tabular array to blend the Ba and gas in the tummy and duodenum. A a Ba repast scrutiny is at the top A A from the GI piece of land ( GIT ) , esophagus, tummy and duodenum. Barium is a calcareous liquid that is used by radiotherapists to depict parts of the digestive piece of land on X ray. This is the x-ray sensing and X-ray image made from the GI piece of land is much more clear to see and is an assistance to name your job. Patients are given Ba to imbibe either, which will demo the gorge ( nutrient tubing journey to the tummy ) the tummy and little bowel or anus can be given as clyster to sketch the big bowel. You will hold been sent to barium clyster because you may hold suffered from intestine wonts alteration is A A A A A * Lower abdominal hurting A A A A A * Bloated feeling A A A A A * Shuttle diarrhoea and irregularity A A A A A * Blood in intestine motion A A A A A * Unexplained weight loss Preparation: For tummy involves eating merely soft nutrients, liquids, and take a laxative that will supply staff. You will be provided with written instructions about what you can eat and imbibe and when to take a laxative. If you are a diabetic be certain to inquire the staff for any particular instructions. A really powerful laxative and encouraged to stay close to the lavatory. Preparations for this process is really of import if the tummy is non clear processs will be done and should be rescheduled. Hazard: Small hazard of the process, the bowel may punch and barium might leak into the abdominal pit, it happens really seldom. Radiation dosage received is the same as your class will be unfastened for more than three old ages. You may be given medicine to loosen up the tummy during the process, if you suffer from bosom disease or glaucoma you should state the staff. Procedure: Will be done in the X-ray section and normally will be done as outpatient processs. If you believe you may be pregnant, you should state the staff before the start of the probe. When you arrive at your section will be displayed to the cubical and shows the current location near the lavatory, you will so be asked to take all your apparels and wear frocks, all metal objects, tickers and jewellery should be removed. A A A A A * You will be comfy lying on the tabular array with a cover to cover your R A A A A A * You will be asked to turn your manus, gently anal tubing is passed through a little way into the anus. A A A A A * The Ba liquid will so be introduced bit by bit radiologist will so motivate you to alter the place on the tabular array to surface the interior of the colon with liquid. A A A A A * Water can besides be inserted into the colon through the anal tubing of the same radiology section provides a clearer image of the colon. A A A A A * This process is more uncomfortable than painful, you may see tummy spasms, and comprehensiveness. A A A A A * You may be given an injection to loosen up the musculuss of the intestine wall, this may do blurring of your vision, but it will go through. A A A A A * You will hold X raies taken of you in different places A A A A A * The process can take about 20 proceedingss even if you can remain in office longer, waiting for X raies and a visit to the lavatory. A A A A A * If the process is complete, you will be able to travel to the lavatory. Some but non all of the Ba will be passed. Your soil will be removed when it is the colour white as Ba, your bench will go on to be a spot pale for a figure of intestine motions. A A A A A * The balance of the Ba will be produced of course in the intestine, but this can do irregularity so you are encouraged to imbibe plentifulness of fluids and eat high fibre diet for several yearss. how long the process wiil user? The examinatio normally takes between 10-15 proceedingss. readying. You may be given a point that, when swallowed, will let go of some gas in your tummy. of import to seek gas remains in the tummy during the trial. cup the sense of Ba sup and so you will be asked rolled to assorted places in the x-ray tabular array, to the mix, Ba and gas in the tummy and duodenum. little injection can besides be provided to assist you loosen up tummy. This may do impermanent blurred vision. and can non drive until your vision has returned to normal. The Ba will be seen on x-ray machine while you are who moved to different places to let you to barium make all parts of the tummy. radiotherapist will take x-ray scope when being examined by X ray is of import to follow waies and keep your breath when you are asked to guarantee that X raies do non get away. after the process after a Ba repast you will be given a mild laxative for download place with you to get the better of the effects of irregularity Ba. You should imbibe plentifulness of fluids. your intestine action may be white for several yearss after the process. If you have diabetes or other medical conditions det necessitating particular medicine, delight allow us before your assignment. If you have inquiries about the process please name us to talk with your physician Listen Read phonetically A Dictionary Ã¢â¬â Position detailed dictionary Google Translate for my: SearchesVideosEmailPhoneChatBusiness About Google TranslateTurn off blink of an eye translationPrivacyHelp AÃ ©2010Business ToolsAbout Google TranslateBlogShare your storyPrivacyHelp Listen Read phonetically A Dictionary Ã¢â¬â Position detailed dictionary preposition in within inside Listen Read phonetically A Dictionary Ã¢â¬â Position detailed dictionary preposition in within inside How to cite Contrast Media Procedures For Radiography Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
An ascent through a long narrow corridor of pines, tiny fox prints underneath my own, an abandoned campsite with a forgotten soda can sitting on a picnic table. Fierce orange leaves scattered amongst fallen berries floating down the stream to my right. A reprieve for my muscles provided by the flat, open field inhabited by my moose friend. For a few precious strides our feet hit the ground simultaneously as we travel parallel to each otherÃ¢â¬âtogether and apart. She soon darts off, leaving me with a raised spirit embodied in a bittersweet half-smile. The geese above me watch awhile, but they too have better places to be. They honk staggered farewells as they fly south. On my own again, ascending, slipping, sliding, I forge through thick mud. Behind me I catch a glimpse of footprints I leave through a curtain of blonde ponytail. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t look quite like I thought they would; theyÃ¢â¬â¢re much smaller. We will write a custom essay sample on An Escape or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Nostalgia seizes me. I recall months ago, when someone juxtaposed my stride with the stride of a doe, springy and lithe. The sudden flapping of a grouseÃ¢â¬â¢s wings yanks me back, and my pulse quickens as I pinpoint where it came from. I laugh and keep pushing upwards, until trail intersects dirt road. My legs anticipate the descent, and I quicken my pace until the brush that crowds the sides of the road blurs into an audience, their branches skimming my shoulders like miniature pats on the back. When I reach the crest of the hill, I stop for a moment to catch my breath, only to lose it again at the wonder of my surroundings. On my right a crescent moon rises over a harvested field, and to my left the brilliant setting sun forces me to squint and shield my eyes. Caught amid the transition of night and day, my head bobs back and forth between the two as their silent battle for ownership of the sky continues. My feet start to move again, and I catch a glimpse of the waning sun in the side mirror of a dusty Ã¢â¬â¢64 Impala parked on the side of the road. I am only racing the moon now. And race I do, for as the rose-colored sky surrenders to a deep eggplant peppered with stars, the residual warmth from the sun falls to the nightÃ¢â¬â¢s chill. The city lights below wink at me as I descend and scraggly bushes morph into mailboxes. Eventually, tall birches are replaced by homes and childrensÃ¢â¬â¢ boot prints overtake raccoon tracks. The evening news is going unwatched in the living room of one house; a family is gathered around a dinner table at another. The headlights of a car cause me to slow my stride and shield my eyes as I reach the bottom of the hill and trot a few hundred yards on the sidewalk to my home. The porch light greets me and I linger under its glow awhile. My chest heaves and sweat begins to tickle the back of my neck as I turn and glance back to the trail, now shrouded in darkness. I open the door and my retriever waits for me, her tail hitting the wall like a metronome. She tells me with her amber eyes that I have been gone for too long.
Thursday, April 2, 2020
Transformational vs Transactional Leadership Paper Leadership Styles, High-Quality Leader-Follower (LMX) Relationships and Job Performance The current globalized economic environment is becoming increasingly dynamic and competitive forcing organizations to improve their business practices to overcome greater challenges with more flexibility, efficiency and innovation in products and internal processes (Walumbwa et al. 2005, p. 235). Certainly, there is fundamental evidence of the positive association of leadership style and the influence on followerÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour as a consistent way to improve job performance and organizational outcomes (Vaccaro et al. 2010). The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on leader member exchange relationships, job performance and job satisfaction. By using theories such WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s conceptualization of charismatic leadership, BurnsÃ¢â¬â¢ transactional leadership and BassÃ¢â¬â¢ Four IÃ¢â¬â¢s of transformational leadership, this paper acknowledge the superiority of transformational over transactional leadership style in developing high-quality leader-follower (LMX) relationships, increasing followersÃ¢â¬â¢ job performance and Job satisfaction. Recalling previous studies which asserted the dependence of leadership effectiveness on culture and organizational size (Paul et al. 001), it seems clear that transformational leadership is a more suitable leadership style for small, large and complex companies across cultures facing the challenges of globalization of markets. The superiority of transformational leadership style in building high-quality leader-follower (LMX) relationships is given to the practice of one or more of the Four IÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership behaviour. Firstly, Idealized influence through a charismatic behavi our will illustrate the positive influence on followers and their performance. We will write a custom essay sample on Transformational vs Transactional Leadership specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Transformational vs Transactional Leadership specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Transformational vs Transactional Leadership specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It is followed by the ability to motivate team work and the achievement of general goals that produce personal satisfaction and commitment with the company (inspirational motivation). Furthermore, intellectual stimulation will certainly demonstrate how innovation and creativeness is promoted and their impact on organizational results. Finally, individualized consideration in hand with LMX theory will provide an example of the undoubted benefits of dyadic relationships in Ã¢â¬Ëin-groupÃ¢â¬â¢ such greater loyalty and commitment. Leadership styles, high-quality leader-follower (LMX) relationships and Job performance. Focusing in the work of Burns (1978) and Bass (1985) on leadership behaviours, transformational and transactional leadership have been the objective of various research in order to capture the extent to which leaders influence subordinates by involving them in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, or by specifying the rewards that will follow the accomplishment of those goals (Rubin et al. 2005; Yammarino et al. 1997) According to Podsakoff et al. 1990) a fundamental characteristic of transformational leadership behaviour is the ability to create a compelling vision for the organization, providing an appropriate model consistent with that vision, stimulating the acceptance of group goals, expecting high performance, providing individualized support and intellectual stimulation. In contrast, transactional leadership is primarily concern with gaining compliance from subordinates by using a contingent re ward dimension or a passive form of managing by exception. The leader specifies what is expected from organizational members and the subsequent reward for its accomplishment (Bass and Avolio 1990). According to LMX theory, a high-quality leader-follower (LMX) relationship, usually associated with dyads in the Ã¢â¬Ëin-groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ of the organization, emphasizes in fundamental levels of loyalty, commitment, respect, affection, mutual trust and the possibility of mutual linking between leaders and followers (House et al. 1993). Transformational rather than transactional leadership is more likely to achieve this superior level in the follower-leader relationship by developing one or more of the Four IÃ¢â¬â¢s; Idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration (Bass, BM and Avolio, BJ (eds. ) 1994). Idealized influence A transformational leader acts in a way that becomes a role model or inspirational image for his/her followers (Zhang, X, Cao, Q and Tjosvold, D 2010) usually attributed to his/her charismatic approach. Certainly, charisma in meant to be a requirement for transformational leadership. According to Weber (1947) a charismatic leadership can inspire and motivate people to do more than originally intended. What is more, they can influence followers by arousing strong emotions in support of the organizational vision, creating a leader-follower relationship based on a common value system between leader, follower and organization (Paul et al. 2001). Towler (2003) demonstrated that workers who received a charismatic-training performed better on their knowledge test and were more satisfied with the task. Unlike, transactional leadership emphasizes in the transaction that takes place with followers based on explicit discussion of the rewards they will receive if they fulfil the requirements. As a consequence, the relationship with is limited to the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to control the outcomes desired by followers. However, as Dorfman et al. (1999) argued, charismatic behaviour can have a negative implication on societies with a history of autocratic and despotic leaders. Inspirational motivation Undoubtedly, the contingent transactional reinforcement system motivates followers to perform in such adequate way in order to obtain the reward. However, through this system, followersÃ¢â¬â¢ job performance, as well as commitment, is strongly limited to fulfil the requirements of the contract in a self-satisfying attitude (Avolio,BJ, Bass, BM and Jung, DI 1999) rather than a commitment with the leader and organizational vision he/she has established. Contrary, transformational leaders promote an organizational citizenship behaviour in which team-supporting behaviours augment followersÃ¢â¬â¢ identification with group values. The leader motivates them to transcend from a self-concept to be committed with cooperative team goals. Followers find themself intrinsically motivated to fulfil a collective vision without expecting immediate personal and tangible gains (Wang et al. 2005). Intellectual stimulation Transformational leaders stimulate employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ effort to be innovative and creative by questioning assumption, reframing problems and approaching situations in different ways (Vaccaro et al. 2010, p. 2). On the other hand, as Podsakoff et al, (1990) exposed, transactional leadership consist in two dimensions; Contingent reward systems, which emphasizes the institution of clear and precise agreements, and management by exception that promotes highly leadership involvement and intervention in order to monitor and ectify any divergence form standards. Amibile (1998) claims that both dimensions inhibit creativity and discourage the initiative to address new ways to facing the work. Although, currently research fail to demonstrate a universal leadership phenomena (Walumbwa et al. 2005, p. 235), transformational leadership, by using intellectual stimulation behaviours, exhibit a cross-cultural benefit on commitment, innovation and job performance, all of them being characteristics of high-quality leader-follower (LMX) relationship. Avolio, Zhu, Koh, and Puja (2004), by gathering data from staff nurses in a large public hospital in Singapore, found a positive association between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Likewise, Geyer and Steyrer (1998), as a result of a research in Australian banks, reported that transformational leadership had positive effects on employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ level of effort and task performance. Individual consideration A transactional leader properly identifies employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs in order to make the accurate motivational transactions; as a result, both parts expectations are met and job satisfactions is improved. However the exchange is usually limited to economic or tangible benefits and does not promote leader-follower relationships. In contrast, a transformational leader pays special attention to followerÃ¢â¬â¢s individual needs in a widely range, such achievement and growth, by acting as a coach or mentor. The leader demonstrate acceptance for individual differences, promote two-way exchange communication and sees the individual as a person rather than as just an employee (Bass, BM and Avolio, BJ (eds. 1994). In this extent, transformational leader promotes the creation of dyadic relationships with Ã¢â¬Ëin-groupÃ¢â¬â¢ members which usually have a high-quality relationship with the leader and are expected to be more loyal to the leader, and perform in a greater extent as an exchange for intangible benefits like career development, participation in decision making, and access to information, between others (Vaccaro et al. 2010, p. 2). According to Deluga (1992), individualized consideration and charisma were two transformational leadership factors that predicted LMX and are the cause for subordinates to behave in ways (such as making extra efforts) that strengthen relational ties with the leader. Conclusion It seems clear that transformational and transactional leadership have positive relationship with organization outcomes; however this paper clearly stated the superiority of transformational leadership on building high-quality leader-follower (LMX) relationships based on the development of the Four IÃ¢â¬â¢s. First, by using a charismatic approach, transformational leaders create an idealize influence that augment followerÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions and commitment with the leader and organizational vision. Second, this paper claimed that by using inspirational motivating behaviour, leaders motivates followers to transcend from self-interest to commitment cooperative goals which led them to perform without expecting immediate personal benefits. In contrast, the transactional exchange-relationship with followers was meant to be limited to the interest on the reward promised as exchange for their task accomplishment in a very self-satisfying attitude. Given the importance of innovation in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations, intellectual stimulation was consider to be fundamentally related to followersÃ¢â¬â¢ commitment and organization increase on job performance and competitiveness. Unlike, by delimiting the outcome expected from followers and the reward system, transactional leadership was appeared to harm innovation in organization. Not different is the outcome of using managing by exception dimension. Finally, by having an individual consideration, transformational leadership are more likely to developed high-quality relationship members that are expected to be more loyal and perform in greater extent without expecting immediate tangible benefits. In contrast, commitment and higher achievement with a transactional leadership was limited to the exchange of direct economic and tangible benefits. Overall, due to the development of followers and their potential, transformational leadership is assumed to be more appropriate for many different types of companies and situations at any level across cultures. Reference list Amabile, TM 1998. Ã¢â¬ËHow to kill creativityÃ¢â¬â¢. Harvard Business Review, vol. 76, pp. 76Ã¢â¬â87. Avolio, BJ, Bass, BM, Jung, DI 1999, Ã¢â¬ËRe-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the multifactor leadership questionnaireÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 72, no 4, pp. 441Ã¢â¬â462. Avolio, B J, Zhu, W, Koh, W, Puja, B 2004, Ã¢â¬ËTransformational leadership and organizational commitment: Mediating role of psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distanceÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, vol. 4, pp. 1Ã¢â¬â18. Bass, BM, Avolio, BJ 1990, Ã¢â¬ËThe Implications of transactional and transformational Leadership for individual, team and organizational developmentÃ¢â¬â¢. Research in Organizational Change and Development, vol. 4, pp. 231Ã¢â¬â72. Bass, B. M. Avolio, B. J. (eds. ) 1994, Improving organizational effectiveness through transformatio nal leadership, Sage Publications, London. Deluga, R J 1992, Ã¢â¬ËThe relationship of leader-member exchanges with laissez-faire, transactional, and transformational leadershipÃ¢â¬â¢. Impact of leadership. pp. 237Ã¢â¬â247. Dorfman, PW, Howell, JP, Hibino, S, Lee, JK, Tate, U, Bautista, A 1997, Ã¢â¬ËLeadership in Western and Asian countries: Communalities and differences in effective leadership processes across culturesÃ¢â¬â¢. Leadership Quarterly, vol. 8, no 3, pp. 233Ã¢â¬â274. Felfe, J, Tartler, K and Liepmann, D 2004, Ã¢â¬ËAdvanced Research in the Field of Transformational Leadership. Zeitschrift fur Personalforschung Ã¢â¬â German Journal of Human Resource Research. Special Research Forum, vol. 18, pp. 262Ã¢â¬â88. Geyer, A, Steyrer, J 1998, Ã¢â¬ËTransformational leadership and objective performance in banksÃ¢â¬â¢. Applied Psychology: An International Review, vol. 7, no 3, pp. 397Ã¢â¬â420. House and Aditya; RC, Liden and Maslyn JM 1993, Ã¢â¬ËScale development for a multidimensional mesur of Leader-Member exchangeÃ¢â¬â¢, Paper presented at annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta, Georgia. Paul, J, Costley, DL, Howell, JP, Dorfma, PW 2001, Ã¢â¬ËThe effects of cha rismatic leadership on followersÃ¢â¬â¢ self-concept accessibilityÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1821-1 844. Podsakoff, PM, MacKenzie, SB, Moorman, RH, Fetter, R 1990, Ã¢â¬ËTransformational leader behaviours and their effects on followersÃ¢â¬â¢ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviour. Leadership Quarterly, vol. 1, pp. 107Ã¢â¬â142. Rubin, RS, Munz, DC, Bommer, WH 2005, Ã¢â¬ËLeading from within: the effects of emotion recognition and personality on transformational leadership behaviorÃ¢â¬â¢. Academy of Management Journal, vol. 48, pp. 845Ã¢â¬â58. Towler, AJ 2003, Ã¢â¬ËEffects of charismatic in? uence training on attitudes, behaviour, and performanceÃ¢â¬â¢. Personnel Psychology, vol. 56, no 2, pp. 363Ã¢â¬â381. Vaccaro, IG, Jansen, JJ, Van Den Bosch, FA, Volberda, HW 2010, Ã¢â¬ËManagement innovation and leadership: The moderating role of organizational sizeÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Management Studies, pp. -23. Walumbwa, FO, Orwa, B, Wang, P, Lawler, JJ 2005, Ã¢â¬ËTransformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, and job satisfaction: A comparative study of Kenyan and U. S. financial firmsÃ¢â¬â¢, Human resource development quarterly, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 235-265. Wang, H, Law, K, Hackett, R, Wang, D, Chen ZX 2005, Ã¢â¬ËLeader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followersÃ¢â¬â¢ performance and organizational citizenship behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 420-432. Weber, M 1947, Ã¢â¬ËThe theory of social and economic organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢, translated by T. Parson, New York. Yammarino, FJ, Dubinsky, A J, Comer, LB, Jolson, MA 1997, Ã¢â¬ËWomen and transformational and contingent reward leadership: a multiple-levels-of-analysis perspectiveÃ¢â¬â¢. Academy of Management Journal, vol. 40, pp. 205Ã¢â¬â22. Zhang, X, Cao, Q, Tjosvold, D 2010, Ã¢â¬ËLinking transformational leadership and team Performance: A con? ict management approachÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Management Studies, pp. 1-26.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Alexis Leyva Machado, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"KchoÃ¢â¬ , was born in 1970 on the Isla de la Juventud, a small island off the southern coast of Cuba. Today he is known as the islandÃ¢â¬â¢s most internationally established artist since Wiferdo Lam. His sculptures are known for not only his hidden political meaning but also his use of materials out of the norm. He uses left over materials that have to do with the water to make his sculptures. He uses such things as old rowboats, fishing nets, oars, rafts, and other similar objects in his art. Kcho comments on the themes of his work stating Ã¢â¬Å"Where I grew up, all the limits were liquid.Ã¢â¬ He has been featured in more than 50 group shows and over 15 solo exhibitions around the world. He has one many awards such as the Saiz brothers prize in 1990, a scholarship from the Ludwig foundation, and the Unesco prize in 1995 awarded from Geneva, Switzerland. Although Kcho is from Cuba and is under a repressive regime his work has transcended a dictatorship country and is known in the U.S. and abroad. He was able to travel outside his home country in 1992 for the first time to participate in shows in Spain, Mexico, Holland and Belgium. Sly political references are blended into his work such as in one of his pieces from the Madrid show. This work was a series of drawings of docks, each dock in the shape of a letter that spelled out Elian, the name of the Cuban boy that survived a boat wreck and was therefore in the spotlight of mass media attention for months. Kcho currently resides in Havana and continues to put out impressive art works that are laden with his feelings and political statements that bring up to $4,000 for a drawing and up to $75,000 for just a small sculpture. His work can be viewed at www.ciac.ca/expos/kcho.html. Carmen Borrase Povedano de Mills is a painter born in Costa Rica. The artist uses fabrics and other elements such as strings, roses, and religious medals in her p... Free Essays on Latin American Atrists Free Essays on Latin American Atrists Alexis Leyva Machado, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"KchoÃ¢â¬ , was born in 1970 on the Isla de la Juventud, a small island off the southern coast of Cuba. Today he is known as the islandÃ¢â¬â¢s most internationally established artist since Wiferdo Lam. His sculptures are known for not only his hidden political meaning but also his use of materials out of the norm. He uses left over materials that have to do with the water to make his sculptures. He uses such things as old rowboats, fishing nets, oars, rafts, and other similar objects in his art. Kcho comments on the themes of his work stating Ã¢â¬Å"Where I grew up, all the limits were liquid.Ã¢â¬ He has been featured in more than 50 group shows and over 15 solo exhibitions around the world. He has one many awards such as the Saiz brothers prize in 1990, a scholarship from the Ludwig foundation, and the Unesco prize in 1995 awarded from Geneva, Switzerland. Although Kcho is from Cuba and is under a repressive regime his work has transcended a dictatorship country and is known in the U.S. and abroad. He was able to travel outside his home country in 1992 for the first time to participate in shows in Spain, Mexico, Holland and Belgium. Sly political references are blended into his work such as in one of his pieces from the Madrid show. This work was a series of drawings of docks, each dock in the shape of a letter that spelled out Elian, the name of the Cuban boy that survived a boat wreck and was therefore in the spotlight of mass media attention for months. Kcho currently resides in Havana and continues to put out impressive art works that are laden with his feelings and political statements that bring up to $4,000 for a drawing and up to $75,000 for just a small sculpture. His work can be viewed at www.ciac.ca/expos/kcho.html. Carmen Borrase Povedano de Mills is a painter born in Costa Rica. The artist uses fabrics and other elements such as strings, roses, and religious medals in her p...
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Discussion 3 - Assignment Example Carlyle seems to be a good actor by possessing some animalÃ¢â¬â¢s magnetism of the early days before the periods when drugs and mania took some tolls. Moreover, Hitler saw National Socialism to be minor compared to political movement but rather regarded it as a religious one since they mostly used the Blood Flag, Sacred oaths and religious rituals. The traditional religious holidays were later substituted by the Nazi holy days and now the calls for miracles of faith were seen as manifestations of NazismÃ¢â¬â¢s quasi-religious characters. Kurt Ludecke who was a supporter of Hitler regarded National Socialism as a secular conversation of a new faith that will come by itself. Most of the Germans regarded Hitler as the messiah with respect to his vision. We get to realize that the Nazi leaders encouraged the messianic view of Hitler in almost all German schools. Through this, children were required to write composition comparing Jesus with Hitler. Song was made by the youth organization who were mainly boys known as Hitler Jungvolk. The song had a lot of praise to Hitler as the Lord, Savior and hero of Germans. Further, HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability as the Speaker is seen as a major cause for his great success by arousing deep and passionate emotions to his listeners by his carefully prepared and set speeches. It could take him few minutes to express deepest desires and dreams to his listeners. It is revealed by one of his biographer that Hitler often practiced gesturing in front of a mirror in his Munich room on the Thierschstrasse that made him to constantly improve his techniques of public speaking. On the other side, Hitler is seen as an Ideologist whose main aim was to acquire power for him by many biographers. This is seen through h is clever manipulation of weaknesses of others for his own end. Moreover, this is also evident when he wrote Mein Kampf in the mid-1920s. Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Triumph of the will German about Propaganda and mass meetings